Medicinal Herbs of California Bibliography

Medicinal Herbs of CA Bibliography (PDF)

PLEASE NOTE: This bibliography is copyrighted material by Lanny Kaufer. You are welcome to access it here to aid in reading the book, Medicinal Herbs of California: A Field Guide to Common Healing Plants, but you may not copy it or reproduce it online or in print. 


Please bear in mind that websites sometimes move pages around, give them different URL addresses, etc. Please contact me if you find a broken link. You may have to do some digging if a link below that worked at the time of the writing of the book is no longer working.


A Barefoot Doctor’s Manual (Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, 1974).

Adams, James D. Jr, and Cecilia Garcia. “Women’s health among the Chumash.” Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: eCaliforniaM, vol. 3, 1: 125–31.

Adams, James David, et al. “Salvia mellifera—How Does It Alleviate Chronic Pain?” Medicines, vol. 6, 1 18. Basel, Switzerland, January 24, 2019.

Adams, Robert, Sanko Nguyen, Chang-Fu Hsieh, and Guan Kaiyun. “The Leaf Essential Oils of the Genus Calocedrus.” Journal of Essential Oil Research. October 2006, 18(6): 654–58.

Akhtari, Elham, et al. “Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo—controlled study.” Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, vol. 22, 1 40. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, April 28, 2014.

Allison, Brittany J., et al. (2016). “Antibacterial activity of fractions from three Chu-mash medicinal plant extracts and in vitro inhibition of the enzyme enoyl reductase by the flavonoid jaceosidin.” Natural Product Research.

American Botanical Council. Complete German Commission E Monographs.
———. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs.

Applequist, Wendy, and Daniel Moerman. (2011). “Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.): A Neglected Panacea? A Review of Ethnobotany, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Research.” Economic Botany 65: 209–25.

Awad, R., et al. “Phytochemical and biological analysis of Skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L.): a medicinal plant with anxiolytic properties.” The Free Library, November 1, 2003. May 15, 2020.…-a0112687600

Awang, Dennis V. C. Tyler’s Herbs of Choice : The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals, third edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2009.

Baker, Marc (1981). “The ethnobotany of the Yurok, Tolowa, and Karok Indians of northwest California.” 10.13140/RG.2.2.12690.66240.

Bard, Cephas L. “A Contribution to the History of Medicine in Southern California.” Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, vol. 26, no. 1 (2006), 95–108.

Barnes, Joanne, Linda A. Anderson, and J. D. Phillipson. Herbal Medicines, third edition. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2007.

Barrett, S. A., and E. W. Gifford (1933). “Miwok Material Culture.” Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, vol. 2, no. 4.

Barrows, David P. The Ethno-botany of the Coahuilla Indians of Southern California. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1900.

Bean, Lowell John, and Katherine Siva Saubel. Temalpakh: Cahuilla Indian Knowledge and Usage of Plants. Banning, CA: Malki Museum, 1972.

Behera, Bhaskar, Neeraj Verma, Anjali Sonone, and Urmila Makhija (2009). “Usnea, Optimization of Culture Conditions for Lichen Usnea ghattensis G. Awasthi to Increase Biomass and Antioxidant Metabolite Production.” Food Technology and Biotechnology 47.

Bingham, Mrs. R. F. “Medicinal Plants Growing Wild in Santa Barbara and Vicinity.” Bulletin of the Santa Barbara Society of Natural History, vol. 1, no. 2, October 1890.

Bissett, Norman G., editor. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1994.

Blumenthal, Mark. “Herb Industry and FDA Issue Chaparral Warning: Experts Unable to Explain Possible Links to Five Cases of Hepatitis.” Reprinted from HerbalGram magazine.

Bocek, Barbara R. (1984). “Ethnobotany of Costanoan Indians, California, Based on Collections by John P. Harrington.” Economic Botany 38, no. 2, 240–55.

Bown, Deni. New Encyclopedia of Herbs and Their Uses, revised edition. New York: DK Publishing, 2001.

Buhner, Stephen H. Herbal Antibiotics, second edition. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing, 2012.

California Invasive Plant Council. “Foeniculum vulgare,” Cal IPC.

California Native Plant Society. CalScape website:
———. “Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of California.” Online edition, v8-030.38.

California Penal Code. “Crimes Against the Public Health and Safety.” California penal code section 384a.
———. “Crimes Against the Public Health and Safety.” California Penal Code 384b et seq.

Canavan, Don, and Eric Yarnell (2005). “Successful Treatment of Poison Oak Dermatitis Treated with Grindelia spp. (Gumweed).” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 11: 709–10.

Castleman, Michael. The New Healing Herbs. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 2009.

Caveney, S., et al. (2001). “New observations on the secondary chemistry of world Ephedra (Ephedraceae).” Am. J. Bot. 88: 1199–1208.

Chandler, R. F., et al. (1982). “Ethnobotany and Phytochemistry of Yarrow, Achillea millefolium, Compositae.” Economic Botany, vol. 36, no. 2: 203–223. JSTOR,

Chesnut, Victor K. Plants Used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. US Government Printing Office, 1902.

Chevallier, Andrew. Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine, third edition. (New York: DK Publishing, 2016).

Chu, Joe Hing Kwok. Chinese Herbal Medicine Dictionary.

Cinatl, J., et al. (2003). “Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus.” Lancet, vol. 361,9374: 2045–46.

Clark, A. M., T. M. Jurgens, and C. D. Hufford (1990). “Antimicrobial activity of juglone.” Phytother. Res. 4: 11–14.

Coombes, Allen J. The Dictionary of Plant Names. Portland, OR: Timber Press, 1985.

Cottingham, Michael. Medicinal Uses of Mormon Tea. Wild Medicine School, November 17, 2020. YouTube video, 4:28.

Crouthamel, Steven J. (2009). “Luise–o Ethnobotany.” Palomar College. San Marcos, CA.

D’Abrosca, Brigida, et al. “Urtica dioica L. inhibits proliferation and enhances cisplatin cytotoxicity in NSCLC cells via Endoplasmic Reticulum-stress mediated apoptosis.” Scientific Reports vol. 9:1, 4986. March 21, 2019.

Dentali, S. J., and J. J. Hoffmann (1992). “Potential Anti-infective Agents from Eriodictyon angustifolium and Salvia apiana.” International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 30:3, 223–31.

DerMarderosian, Ara, and John A. Beutler, co-editors. The Review of Natural Products, seventh edition. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Health, 2012.

Dispensatory of the United States of America, eighteenth edition. 1877, 518.

Duffy, Thomas P., “The Flexner Report—100 Years Later.” The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 84(3): 269–76.

Duke, James A. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, second edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2002.

European Medicines Agency (2017). “Raspberry leaf: Summary for the public.”
——— (2012). “Community herbal monograph on Grindelia robusta Nutt., Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal, Grindelia humilis Hook. et Arn., Grindelia camporum Greene, herba.”

Fidyt, Klaudyna, et al. (2016). “β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide-natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties.” Cancer Medicine, vol. 5,10: 3007–17.

Fiol, Camila, Diego Prado, Mar’a Mora, and J. I–aki Alava. “Nettle Cheese: Using Nettle Leaves (Urtica dioica) to Coagulate Milk in the Fresh Cheese Making Process.” International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science. Elsevier, May 28, 2016.

Fischer, Wolfgang, et al. (2019). “Old age-associated phenotypic screening for Alzheimer’s disease drug candidates identifies sterubin as a potent neuroprotective compound from yerba santa.” Redox Biology, vol. 21.

Fleming, Matthew C., et al. (2018). “Immunomodulatory and Antibacterial Properties of the Chumash Medicinal Plant Trichostema lanatum.” Medicines, 5(2): 25.

Fontaine P., et al. (2013). “Chemical composition and antinociceptive activity of California sagebrush (Artemisia californica).” J. Pharmacognosy Phytother, 5(1): 1–11.

Foster, Steven, and Christopher Hobbs. A Field Guide to Western Medicinal Plants and Herbs. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002.

Frati, A.C., E. Jiménez, and C. R. Ariza (1990). “Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia ficus-indica in non insulin‐dependent diabetes mellitus patients.” Phytother. Res., 4: 195– 97.

Frati-Munari, Alberto C., Blanca E Gordillo, Perla Altamirano, and C. Raúl Ariza. “Hypoglycemic Effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire in NIDDM.” Diabetes Care, January 1988, 11 (1): 63–66.

Frawley, David, and Vasant Lad. The Yoga of Herbs: An Ayurvedic Guide to Herbal Medicine. Santa Fe, NM: Lotus Press, 1986.

Garcia, Cecilia, and James D. Adams. Healing with Medicinal Plants of the West: Cultural and Scientific Basis for Their Use, third edition, revised. La Crescenta, CA: Abedus Press, 2016.

Garth, Thomas R. (1953). “Atsugewi Ethnography.” Anthropological Records 14(2):140– 41, 140.

Gifford, E. W. (1967). “Ethnographic Notes on the Southwestern Pomo.” Anthropological Records, vol. 25: 14. University of California, Berkeley.

Glatt, Levi. Medicinal Herbs of Santa Cruz County. Santa Cruz, CA: Forest Academy Press, 2017.

Gledhill, David. The Names of Plants, third edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Gonzáez-Juárez, Daphne E., et al. “A Review of the Ephedra genus: Distribution, Ecology, Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties.” Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 25,14, July 20, 2020: 3283.

Goodrich, Jennie, Claudia Lawson, and Vana Parrish Lawson. Kashaya Pomo Plants. Los Angeles: American Indian Studies Center, University of California, 1980.

Grieve, Mrs. M. A Modern Herbal. New York: Dover Publications, 1971.

Hardy, Karen, et al. (2012). “Neanderthal medics? Evidence for food, cooking, and medicinal plants entrapped in dental calculus.” Die Naturwissenschaften, vol. 99,8: 617–26.

Harnett, Joanna, et al. (2020). “The effects of Sambucus nigra berry on acute respiratory viral infections: A rapid review of clinical studies.” Advances in Integrative Medicine, vol. 7,4: 240–46.

Hashidoko, Yasuyuki (1996). “Phytochemistry of Rosa rugosa.” Phytochemistry 43: 535–49. 10.1016/0031-9422(96)00287-7.

Hawkins, Jessie, et al. “Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials.” Complement Ther Med., February 2019, 42: 361–65.

Hayashi, Hiroaki, et al. (2005). “Phylogenetic Relationship of Glycyrrhiza lepidota, American Licorice, in Genus Glycyrrhiza Based on rbcL Sequences and Chemical Constituents.” Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 28: 161–64.

Hedges, Ken, and Christina Beresford. Santa Ysabel Ethnobotany. San Diego, CA: San Diego Museum of Man, 1986.

Hedrick, U. P. Sturtevant’s Edible Plants of the World. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1972.

Hemmes, Richard B., Arlene Alvarado, and Benjamin L. Hart. “Use of California bay foliage by wood rats for possible fumigation of nest-borne ectoparasites.” Behavioral Ecology, vol. 13, no. 3, May 2002: 381–85. “Chinese researcher wins Nobel Prize for malaria drug derived from ‘Sweet Annie.’”

Hinton, L. (1975). “Notes on La Huerta Diegue–o Ethnobotany.” The Journal of California Anthropology 2(2). Retrieved from

Hobbs, Christopher. Usnea: The Herbal Antibiotic. Capitola, CA: Botanica Press, 1986.

Hoffmann, David. The New Holistic Herbal, third edition. Rockport, MA: Element Inc., 1991.

Incayawar, Mario, MD (2010). “Tongva Medicinal Plants.”

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (2020–3). “The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.” IUCN Red List.

Ivanescu, Bianca, et al. (2015). “Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis.” Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, vol. 2015.

Jepson Flora Project (editors) (2020). “Jepson eFlora.”

Johnson J. J. (2011). “Carnosol: a promising anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent.” Cancer Letters, 305(1): 1–7.

Kaiser Permanente (2015). “Chaparral.” Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Washington.
——— (2015). “Eucalyptus.” Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Washington.
——— (2015). “Sage.” Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Washington.
——— (2015). “St. John’s Wort.” Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Washington.
——— (2015). “Usnea.” Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Washington.

Kay, Margarita Artschwager. Healing with Plants in the American and Mexican West. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1998.

Khan, Ikhlas A., and Ehab A. Abourashed. Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, third edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

Kim, Seung-Hee, and Kyung-Chul Choi (2013). “Anti-cancer Effect and Underlying Mechanism(s) of Kaempferol, a Phytoestrogen, on the Regulation of Apoptosis in Diverse Cancer Cell Models.” Toxicological Research, vol. 29,4: 229–34.

Klingelhoefer S., B. Obertreis, S. Quast, and B. Behnke (1999). “Antirheumatic Effect of IDS 23, a Stinging Nettle Leaf Extract, on in Vitro Expression of T Helper Cytokines.” The Journal of Rheumatology. US National Library of Medicine.

Knishinsky, Ran. Prickly Pear Cactus Medicine: Treatments for Diabetes, Cholesterol, and the Immune System. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 2004.

Kregiel, Dorota, et al. “Urtica spp.: Ordinary Plants with Extraordinary Properties.” Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 23,7, July 9, 2018: 1664.

Largo, Donna, Daniel F. McCarthy, and Marcia Roper. Medicinal Plants Used by Native American Tribes in Southern California. Banning, CA: Malki-Ballena Press, 2009.

Linus Pauling Institute. “Vitamin C.” Oregon State University Micronutrient Information Center.

Lis, Anna, Agata Swaczyna, Agnieszka Krajewska, and Karolina Mellor. “Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils From Twigs, Leaves, and Cones of Thuja plicata and Its Cultivar Varieties ‘Fastigiata,’ ‘Kornik,’ and ‘Zebrina.’” Natural Product Communications, July 2019.

Luther Burbank Home & Gardens. “Spineless Cactus.”

Lyle, T. J. Physio-Medical Therapeutics, Materia Medica and Pharmacy. Salem, OH: J. M. Lyle & Bros., 1897 [Public domain; accessed online at Internet Archive].

Mangelsdorf, Paul C. “Introduction.” Plants in the Development of Modern Medicine, Tony Swain, editor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972.

McKay, D. L., and J. B. Blumberg (2006). “A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita L.).” Phytother Res. 20(7): 519–30.

Mead, George R. The Ethnobotany of the California Indians. La Grande, OR: E-Cat Worlds, 2003.

Medina, Andrea L., et al. (2005). “Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Anemopsis californica Leaf Oil.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53, no. 22: 8694–98.

Medina-Holgu’n, A.L., et al. “Chemotypic variation of essential oils in the medicinal plant, Anemopsis californica.” Phytochemistry 69(4), February 2008: 919–27.

Meng, Ge, et al. (2014). “Research progress on the chemistry and pharmacology of Prunella vulgaris species.” Open Access Library Journal 1, no. 3: 1–19.

Mitscher, Lester, et al. (1983). “Antimicrobial agents from higher plants: Prenylated flavonoids and other phenols from Glycyrrhiza lepidota.” Phytochemistry 22: 573–76.

Moerman, Daniel E. Native American Medicinal Plants: An Ethnobotanical Dictionary. Portland, OR: Timber Press, 2009.

Moore, Michael. “Medicinal Plants.” In The Field With Michael Moore—4. Michael Cottingham, December 8, 2011. YouTube video, (Grindelia).
———. Herbal Tinctures in Clinical Practice, third edition. Bisbee, AZ: Southwest School of Botanical Medicine, 1996.
———. Medicinal Plants of the Desert and Canyon West. Santa Fe, NM: Museum of New Mexico Press, 1989.
———. Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West. Santa Fe, NM: Museum of New Mexico Press, 2003.
———. Medicinal Plants of the Pacific West. Santa Fe, NM: Red Crane Books, 1993.
———. Plant monographs extracted from The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics by Harvey Wickes Felter, MD (1922).

Mowrey, Daniel B. The Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine. Los Angeles: Keats Publishing, 1986.

Murphey, Edith Van Allen. Indian Uses of Native Plants. Ukiah, CA: Mendocino County Historical Society, 1987.

National Formulary, fourth edition, 1916.

Native American Ethnobotany Database.

NatureServe. “Explorer.”

Nyerges, Christopher. Foraging California, second edition. Lanham, MD: The Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group, 2019.

Ommundsen, Peter. “Pronunciation of Biological Latin.” Salt Spring Island, BC: Cape West Publishing.

O’Neill, Maggie. “A 54-Year-Old Man Died from Eating Too Much Black Licorice— Here’s How That Can Happen.” MSN, September 24,

Parke, Davis & Company (1894). Descriptive catalogue of the laboratory products of Parke, Davis & Company. Materia medica, therapeutics, formulae, approximate prices.

Pengelly, Andrew. The Constituents of Medicinal Plants. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin, 2004.

Perri, Filomena, et al. “Naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactones and their semi-synthetic derivatives modulate PGE2 levels by decreasing COX2 activity and expression.” Heliyon 5(3), March 2019: e01366. Published online, March 27, 2019.

Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America, eighth decennial revision, 1905.

Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America, ninth decennial revision, 1916.

Popoola, Olugbenga K., et al. (2013). “Marrubiin.” Molecules 18(8): 9049–60.

Power, Frederick B., and Arthur H. Salway. “Chemical Examination of Micromeria chamissonis (Yerba Buena).” The Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 30., no. 2. February 1908. (as reprinted in Internet Archive)

Prasad, Malini A., et al. “Leveraging phytochemicals: the plant phylogeny predicts sources of novel antibacterial compounds.” Future Science OA, vol. 5,7. FSO407, July 25, 2019.

Puig, Carolina, et al. (2018). “Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract.” PLOS ONE. 13. e0192872.

Pullela, Venkata S., et al. (2005). “Isolation of Lignans and Biological Activity Studies of Ephedra viridis.” Planta Medica 71: 789–91.

Radulescu, Valeria, et al. (2013). “Determination of ascorbic acid in shoots from different coniferous species by HPLC.” Farmacia 61: 1158–66.

Robinson, David W., et al. “Datura quids at Pinwheel Cave, California, provide unambiguous confirmation of the ingestion of hallucinogens at a rock art site.” PNAS, 117 (49), December 8, 2020: 31026–37. First published November 23, 2020.

Romero, John Bruno. The Botanical Lore of the California Indians. New York: Vantage Press, 1954.

Safford, William E. “Daturas of the Old World and New: An Account of Their Narcotic Properties and Their Use in Oracular and Initiatory Ceremonies” (published in the Smithsonian Report for 1920). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1922.

Salehi, Bahare, et al. (2019). “Therapeutic Potential of α- and β-Pinene: A Miracle Gift of Nature.” Biomolecules 9(11): 738.

Sarris, J., E. McIntyre, and D. A. Camfield (2013). “Plant-Based Medicines for Anxiety Disorders, Part 2: A Review of Clinical Studies with Supporting Preclinical Evidence.” CNS Drugs 27: 301–19.

Schenck, Sara M., and Edward W. Gifford. Karok Ethnobotany. Berkeley, CA: University of California Anthropological Records, vol. 13(6), 1952: 377–92.

Schle, Cornelius, Thomas Baghai, N. Sauer, and Gregor Laakmann (2004). “Endocrinological Effects of High-Dose Hypericum perforatum Extract WS 5570 in Healthy Subjects.” Neuropsychobiology 49: 58–63.

Selfridge, Nancy J. “Black Elderberry Supplementation for Upper Respiratory Infection Symptoms.” Integrative Medicine Alert, May 1, 2020.

Senica, Mateja, et al. “The Higher the Better? Differences in Phenolics and Cyanogenic Glycosides in Sambucus nigra Leaves, Flowers and Berries from Different Altitudes.” J Sci Food Agric., 97(8), June 2017: 2623–32.

Shipek, Florence Connolly. Delfina Cuero: Her Autobiography: An Account of Her Last Years and Her Ethnobotanic Contributions. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press, 1991.

Sidor, Andrzej, and Anna Gramza-Michalowska. “Advanced research on the antioxidant and health benefit of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) in food—a review.” Journal of Functional Foods, volume 18, part B. October 2015: 941–58.

Smith, Micholas, and Jeremy C. Smith (2020). “Repurposing Therapeutics for COVID19: Supercomputer-based Docking to the Sars-cov-2 Viral Spike Protein and Viral Spike Protein-human ACE2 Interface.”

Stephens, Tim. “UCSC Arboretum holds the most eucalyptus species anywhere outside of Australia.” UC Santa Cruz News, September 25, 2007.

Strike, Sandra S. Ethnobotany of the California Indians, Volume 2: Aboriginal uses of California’s indigenous plants. Champaign, IL: Koeltz Scientific Books, 1994.

Tabanca, Nurhayat, et al. (2013). “Comparative investigation of Umbellularia californica and Laurus nobilis leaf essential oils and identification of constituents active against Aedes aegypti.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 61(50): 12283–91.

Tadd, Brown. Brown Tadd—Miwok: One Miwok’s View of Native Food Preparations and the Medicinal Uses of Plants. Tollhouse, CA: Three Forests Interpretive Association, 1988.

Taib, Mehdi, et al. “Medicinal Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Activities of Quercus Species.” Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: eCaliforniaM, vol. 2020 1920683. July 31, 2020.

Takeoka, Gary R. et al. “Headspace Volatiles of Scutellaria californica A. Gray Flowers.” Journal of Essential Oil Research, February 2008.

Takeoka, Gary R., et al. (2010). “Volatile Constituents of the Aerial Parts of Salvia apiana Jepson.” Journal of Essential Oil Research 22. sd3b1043620c280fa.

Tan, Keng Hong, and Ritsuo Nishida (2012). “Methyl eugenol: its occurrence, distribution, and role in nature, especially in relation to insect behavior and pollination.” Journal of Insect Science (online), vol. 12: 56.

Tavares, Wilson R., and Ana M. L. Seca. “The Current Status of the Pharmaceutical Potential of Juniperus L. Metabolites.” Medicines (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 5(3), July 31, 2018: 81.

Thorne Research. Sambucus nigra (elderberry) monograph. Altern Med Rev. 10(1), March 2005: 51–54.

Tierra, Michael. “Wild Cherry, One of the Great North American Herbs.” Michael’s blog, East West School of Herbology website.
———. Planetary Herbology. Santa Fe, NM: Lotus Press,1988.

Timbrook, Jan. Chumash Ethnobotany. Santa Barbara, CA: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, 2007.
———. “Virtuous Herbs: Plants in Chumash Medicine.” J. Ethnobiol 7(2), Winter 1987: 171–80.

Tiralongo, Evelin, et al. “Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.” Nutrients, vol. 8(4), March 24, 2016: 182.

Tomè, Franca, Maria Laura Colombo, and Luisa Caldirol (1999). “A Comparative Investigation on Alkaloid Composition in Different Populations of Eschscholtzia californica Cham.” Phytochem. Anal 10: 264–67.

Train, Percy, et al. Medicinal Uses of Plants by Indian Tribes of Nevada, revised edition. US Department of Agriculture, 1957.

Tumen, Ibrahim, et al. “Topical Wound-Healing Effects and Phytochemical Composition of Heartwood Essential Oils of Juniperus virginiana L., Juniperus occidentalis Hook., and Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz.” Journal of Medicinal Food, January 2013: 48–55.

US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. “Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases.”
———, Forest Service. “Seasonal Changes in Carbohydrates and Ascorbic Acid of White Pine and Possible Relation to Tipburn Sensitivity.” Forest Research Note SE-124, December 1969.
———, Natural Resources Conservation Service. “Plant Guide for Jeffrey Pine.”
———, Natural Resources Conservation Service. “Plant Guide for Toyon.”

United Plant Savers. “Species At-Risk” List.

University of California, Berkeley. “The Jepson Herbarium.”

University of California, Riverside. Detailed Case Histories of Salient Worldwide Biological Pest Control Projects (Puncture Vine).

Upton R. (2013). “Stinging nettles leaf (Urtica dioica L.): Extraordinary vegetable medicine.” J Herbal Med.

Upton, Roy (editor), et al. American Herbal Pharmacopoeia: Botanical Pharmacognosy— Microscopic Characterization of Botanical Medicines. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2011.

Veluthoor, Sheeba, et al. (2011). “Composition of the heartwood essential oil of incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens Torr.),” Holzforschung 65.

Viola, H., et al. (1995). “Apigenin, a component of Matricaria recutita flowers, is a central benzodiazepine receptors-ligand with anxiolytic effects.” Planta Med. 61(3): 213–16.

Walker, Phillip L., and Travis Hudson. Chumash Healing; Changing Health and Medical Practices in an American Indian Society. Banning, CA: Malki Museum, 1993.

Wang, Jiayi, et al. “Antibacterial Activity of Juglone against Staphylococcus aureus: From Apparent to Proteomic.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17, no. 6, June 18, 2016: 965.

Wang, Xiaogang, et al. (2016). “Heteromeles arbutifolia, a Traditional Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease, Phytochemistry and Safety.” Medicines 3, 17.

Westrich, LoLo. California Herbal Remedies. Houston: Gulf Publishing Co., 1989.

Wheeler-Voegelin, Erminie. Tübatulabal Ethnography. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1938. Accessed at Internet

Whitehead, Anne, et al. “Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat β-glucan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,” vol. 100, no. 6, December 2014: 1413–

Wilken-Robertson, Michael. Kumeyaay Ethnobotany: Shared Heritage of the Californias. San Diego, CA: Sunbelt Publications, 2018.

World Health Organization. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants, vol. 1–4.

Yarnell, Eric, ND, and Lauren Russel, ND. “Solidago: An Inflammation Modulator.” Naturopathic Doctor News & Review, April 11, 2018. allergy-medicine/solidago-an-inflammation-modulator/.

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